Chapter Nine (Part 3)
|Table of Content||
Chapter Nine (Part 5)
ARITHMETIC AND LOGICAL OPERATIONS (Part 4)
|9.3.4 - Extended
9.3.5 - Extended Precision Division
Although a 16x16 or 32x32 multiply is usually sufficient
there are times when you may want to multiply larger values together. You will use the
80x86 single operand
imul instructions for extended
Not surprisingly (in view of how
you use the same techniques to perform extended precision multiplication on
the 80x86 that you employ when manually multiplying two values.
Consider a simplified form of the way you perform multi-digit multiplication by hand:
1) Multiply the first two 2) Multiply 5*2: digits together (5*3): 123 123 45 45 --- --- 15 15 10 3) Multiply 5*1: 4) 4*3: 123 123 45 45 --- --- 15 15 10 10 5 5 12 5) Multiply 4*2: 6) 4*1: 123 123 45 45 --- --- 15 15 10 10 5 5 12 12 8 8 4 7) Add all the partial products together: 123 45 --- 15 10 5 12 8 4 ------ 5535
The 80x86 does extended precision multiplication in the same manner except that it works with bytes words and double words rather than digits. The figure below shows how this works.
Probably the most important thing to remember when performing an extended precision multiplication is that you must also perform a multiple precision addition at the same time. Adding up all the partial products requires several additions that will produce the result. The following listing demonstrates the proper way to multiply two 32 bit values on a 16 bit processor:
are 32 bit variables declared in the data segment via the
Product is a 64 bit variable declared in the data segment via the
Multiply proc near push ax push dx push cx push bx ; Multiply the L.O. word of Multiplier times Multiplicand: mov ax word ptr Multiplier mov bx ax ;Save Multiplier val mul word ptr Multiplicand ;Multiply L.O. words mov word ptr Product ax ;Save partial product mov cx dx ;Save H.O. word mov ax bx ;Get Multiplier in BX mul word ptr Multiplicand+2 ;Multiply L.O. * H.O. add ax cx ;Add partial product adc dx 0 ;Don't forget carry! mov bx ax ;Save partial product mov cx dx ; for now. ; Multiply the H.O. word of Multiplier times Multiplicand: mov ax word ptr Multiplier+2 ;Get H.O. Multiplier mul word ptr Multiplicand ;Times L.O. word add ax bx ;Add partial product mov word ptr product+2 ax ;Save partial product adc cx dx ;Add in carry/H.O.! mov ax word ptr Multiplier+2 ;Multiply the H.O. mul word ptr Multiplicand+2 ; words together. add ax cx ;Add partial product adc dx 0 ;Don't forget carry! mov word ptr Product+4 ax ;Save partial product mov word ptr Product+6 dx pop bx pop cx pop dx pop ax ret Multiply endp
One thing you must keep in mind concerning this code it only works for unsigned operands. Multiplication of signed operands appears in the exercises.
9.3.5 Extended Precision Division
You cannot synthesize a general n-bit/m-bit division
operation using the
idiv instructions. Such an operation
must be performed using a sequence of shift and subtract instructions. Such an operation
is extremely messy. A less general operation
dividing an n bit quantity by a 32 bit (on
the 80386 or later) or 16 bit quantity is easily synthesized using the
The following code demonstrates how to divide a 64 bit quantity by a 16 bit divisor
producing a 64 bit quotient and a 16 bit remainder:
dseg segment para public 'DATA' dividend dword 0FFFFFFFFh 12345678h divisor word 16 Quotient dword 0 0 Modulo word 0 dseg ends cseg segment para public 'CODE' assume cs:cseg ds:dseg ; Divide a 64 bit quantity by a 16 bit quantity: Divide64 proc near mov ax word ptr dividend+6 sub dx dx div divisor mov word ptr Quotient+6 ax mov ax word ptr dividend+4 div divisor mov word ptr Quotient+4 ax mov ax word ptr dividend+2 div divisor mov word ptr Quotient+2 ax mov ax word ptr dividend div divisor mov word ptr Quotient ax mov Modulo dx ret Divide64 endp cseg ends
This code can be extended to any number of bits by simply
mov / div / mov instructions at the beginning of the
sequence. Of course
on the 80386 and later processors you can divide by a 32 bit value by
eax in the above sequence (with a few other
If you need to use a divisor larger than 16 bits (32 bits on an 80386 or later) you're going to have to implement the division using a shift and subtract strategy. Unfortunately such algorithms are very slow. In this section we'll develop two division algorithms that operate on an arbitrary number of bits. The first is slow but easier to understand the second is quite a bit faster (in general).
As for multiplication the best way to understand how the computer performs division is to study how you were taught to perform long division by hand. Consider the operation 3456/12 and the steps you would take to manually perform this operation:
This algorithm is actually easier in binary since at each step you do not have to guess how many times 12 goes into the remainder nor do you have to multiply 12 by your guess to obtain the amount to subtract. At each step in the binary algorithm the divisor goes into the remainder exactly zero or one times. As an example consider the division of 27 (11011) by three (11):
There is a novel way to implement this binary division algorithm that computes the quotient and the remainder at the same time. The algorithm is the following:
Quotient := Dividend; Remainder := 0; for i:= 1 to NumberBits do Remainder:Quotient := Remainder:Quotient SHL 1; if Remainder >= Divisor then Remainder := Remainder - Divisor; Quotient := Quotient + 1; endif endfor
NumberBits is the number of bits in the
Dividend variables. Note that the
:= Quotient + 1 statement sets the L.O. bit of
Quotient to one since
this algorithm previously shifts
Quotient one bit to the left. The 80x86 code
to implement this algorithm is
; Assume Dividend (and Quotient) is DX:AX Divisor is in CX:BX ; and Remainder is in SI:DI. mov bp 32 ;Count off 32 bits in BP sub si si ;Set remainder to zero sub di di BitLoop: shl ax 1 ;See the section on shifts rcl dx 1 ; that describes how this rcl di 1 ; 64 bit SHL operation works rcl si 1 cmp si cx ;Compare H.O. words of Rem ja GoesInto ; Divisor. jb TryNext cmp di bx ;Compare L.O. words. jb TryNext GoesInto: sub di bx ;Remainder := Remainder - sbb si cx ; Divisor inc ax ;Set L.O. bit of AX TryNext: dec bp ;Repeat 32 times. jne BitLoop
This code looks short and simple but there are a few problems with it. First it does not check for division by zero (it will produce the value 0FFFFFFFFh if you attempt to divide by zero) it only handles unsigned values and it is very slow. Handling division by zero is very simple just check the divisor against zero prior to running this code and return an appropriate error code if the divisor is zero. Dealing with signed values is equally simple you'll see how to do that in a little bit. The performance of this algorithm however leaves a lot to be desired. Assuming one pass through the loop takes about 30 clock cycles this algorithm would require almost 1 000 clock cycles to complete! That's an order of magnitude worse than the DIV/IDIV instructions on the 80x86 that are among the slowest instructions on the 80x86.
There is a technique you can use to boost the performance
of this division by a fair amount: check to see if the divisor variable really uses 32
even though the divisor is a 32 bit variable
the value itself fits just fine
into 16 bits (i.e.
the H.O. word of
Divisor is zero). In this special case
that occurs frequently
you can use the DIV instruction which is much faster.
 This will vary depending upon your choice of processor.
Chapter Nine: Arithmetic And Logical
Operations (Part 4)
27 SEP 1996